Fabrication of glutathione-modified gold nanoparticles as 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol sensor

Main Article Content

Yora Faramitha
Fadhlurrahman Rafi Barori
Firda Dimawarnita
Havid Aqoma
Adam F Nugraha
Alfian Ferdiansyah


Refined palm oil products may contain a harmful substance called as 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD), which can potentially be carcinogenic if consumed in excess. The determination of 3-MCPD depends on the sophisticated machine and highly skilled technicians but it is time-consuming. A simple method that proposes rapid detection remains a challenge. Hence, this research aims to develop a colorimetric-based rapid detection sensor using gold nanoparticles functionalized with a ligand, glutathione (GSH) to be bound to 3-MCPD. Varied concentrations of GSH were evaluated to obtain stable GSH-AuNPs. The characterization results showed that the composition of the stable GSH-AuNPs has been achieved by 250 µL of 0.02 M GSH addition. A stable GSH-AuNPs was ruby red with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 520 nm and an average nanoparticle size of 30 nm. The indication for detection of 3-MCPD was marked by the decrease in the absorbance intensity. Thus, GSH-AuNPs have potential to be developed for the 3-MCPD sensor application.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Faramitha, Y., Barori, F. R., Dimawarnita, F., Siswanto, Aqoma, H., Nugraha, A. F., & Ferdiansyah, A. (2023). Fabrication of glutathione-modified gold nanoparticles as 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol sensor. Communications in Science and Technology, 8(1), 82-86. https://doi.org/10.21924/cst.8.1.2023.1167


Directorate General of Estate, Statistical of National Leading Estate Crops Commodity 2020-2022, 2022.

BPS, Indonesia Foreign Trade Statistics Exports 2020, 1, 2021.

K. Hrncirik and G. van Duijn, An initial study on the formation of 3-MCPD esters during oil refining, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 113 (2011) 374–379.

CODEX, Code of practice the reduction of 3-MCPDs and GEs in refined oils and food products made with refined oils, 2019.

A. Ermacora and K. Hrncirik, Influence of oil composition on the formation of fatty acid esters of 2-chloropropane-1,3-diol (2-MCPD) and 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) under conditions simulating oil refining, Food Chem. 161 (2014) 383–389.

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans, 3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol, in some chemicals present in industrial and consumer products, food and drinking-water, International Agency for Research on Cancer 101 (2013) 349-369.

EFSA, Analysis of occurrence of 3-monochloropropane-1, 2-diol (3-MCPD) in food in Europe in the years 2009-2011 and preliminary exposure assessment, EFSA J. 11 (2013) .

B. Gao, Y. Li, G. Huang and L. Yu, Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropanediol: a review, Annu. Rev. Food Sci. Technol. 10 (2019) 259–284.

W. Kim, Y.A. Jeong, J. On, A. Choi, J.Y. Lee, J.G. Lee et al., Analysis of 3-MCPD and 1,3-DCP in various foodstuffs Using GC-MS, Toxicol. Res. 31 (2015) 313–319.

X. Zheng, W. Fu, K. Zheng, B. Gao, L. Lin, W. Liu et al., A novel method for the simultaneous determination of esterified 2-/3-MCPD and glycidol in foods by GC-MS/MS, Food Control. 123 (2021) 107766.

Z.A. Talitha, N. Andarwulan and D.N. Faridah, Verification of AOCS Cd 29a-13 2013 method for 3-MCPDEs (3-Chloropropane-1.2-Diol Esters) and GE (Glycidol Esters) analysis in palm oil, Int. J. Oil Palm. 3 (2020) 11–22.

K. Yamazaki, M. Ogiso, S. Isagawa, T. Urushiyama, T. Ukena and N. Kibune, Food Additives & Contaminants?: Part A A new , direct analytical method using LC-MS / MS for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1 , 2-propanediol ( 3-MCPD esters ) in edible oils, Food Addit. Contam. 30 (2013) 52–68.

H. Zhou, Q. Jin, X. Wang and X. Xu, Direct measurement of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol fatty acid esters inoils and fats by HPLC method, Food Control. 36 (2014) 111–118.

Z. Hua, T. Yu, D. Liu and Y. Xianyu, Recent advances in gold nanoparticles-based biosensors for food safety detection, Biosens. Bioelectron. 179 (2021) 113076.

M.H. Husein, N.F. Abu Bakar, A.N. Mustapa, K.F. Low, N.H. Othman and F. Adam, Synthesis of various size gold nanoparticles by chemical reduction method with different solvent polarity, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 15 (1) (2020) 1-10.

A. Chafidz, A.R. Afandi, B.M. Rosa, J. Suhartono, P. Hidayat and H. Junaedi, Production of silver nanoparticles via green method using banana raja peel extract as a reducing agent, Commun. Sci. Technol. 5 (2) (2020) 112-118.

N. Munandar, S. Kasim, R. Arfah, D.N. Basir, Y. Hala., M. Zakir and H. Natsir, Green synthesis of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract and their antioxidant activity, Commun. Sci. Technol. 7 (2) (2022) 127-134.

V. Raj, A.N. Vijayan and K. Joseph, Cysteine capped gold nanoparticles for naked eye detection of E. coli bacteria in UTI patients, Sens. Bio-Sensing Res. 5 (2015) 33–36.

B. Feng, R. Zhu, S. Xu, Y. Chen and J. Di, A sensitive LSPR sensor based on glutathione-functionalized gold nanoparticles on a substrate for the detection of Pb2+ ions, RSC Adv. 8 (2018) 4049–4056.

A.A. Martin, E.K. Fodjo, G.B.I. Marc, T. Albert and C. Kong, Simple and rapid detection of free 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol based on cysteine modified silver nanoparticles, Food Chem. 338 (2021) 127787.

S. Devi, B. Singh, A.K. Paul and S. Tyagi, Highly sensitive and selective detection of trinitrotoluene using cysteine-capped gold nanoparticles, Anal. Methods. 8 (2016) 4398–4405.

S. Basu and T. Pal, Glutathione-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles: Electromagnetic interactions in a closely packed assembly, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7 (2007) 1904–1910.

R.G. Acres, V. Feyer, N. Tsud, E. Carlino and K.C. Prince, Mechanisms of aggregation of cysteine functionalized gold nanoparticles, J. Phys. Chem. C 118 (2014) 10481–10487.

M.R. Hormozi-Nezhad, E. Seyedhosseini and H. Robatjazi, Spectrophotometric determination of glutathione and cysteine based on aggregation of colloidal gold nanoparticles, Sci. Iran. 19 (2012) 958–963.

R. Manjumeena, D. Duraibabu, T. Rajamuthuramalingam, R. Venkatesan and P.T. Kalaichelvan, Highly responsive glutathione functionalized green AuNP probe for precise colorimetric detection of Cd2+ contamination in the environment, RSC Adv. 5 (2015) 69124–69133.

I.I.S. Lim, D. Mott, W. Ip, P.N. Njoki, Y. Pan, S. Zhou et al., Interparticle interactions in glutathione mediated assembly of gold nanoparticles, Langmuir. 24 (2008) 8857–8863.

Z.A. Tehrani, Z. Jamshidi, M.J. Javan and A. Fattahi, Interactions of glutathione tripeptide with gold cluster: Influence of intramolecular hydrogen bond on complexation behavior, J. Phys. Chem. A 116 (2012) 4338–4347.