Synthesis of cellulose acetate (CA) from algae Gracilaria sp. composited with nickel oxide (NiO) as a supercapacitor base material

Main Article Content

I Wayan Risdianto
Ahyar Ahmad
Riksfardini Annisa Ermawar


In this research, electrodes were made from cellulose acetate (CA) synthesized from algae Gracilaria sp. and then composited with nickel oxide (NiO), the concentration of which varied from 0, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 grams. Furthermore, FT-IR characterized cellulose acetate, and the CA-NiOn electrode was characterized by XRD, SEM, and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results showed that CA was successfully synthesized from Gracilaria sp. Increasing the concentration of NiO added to CA as an electrode could increase the specific capacity, energy density, and power density of the electrode with the highest degree of 83.27 F/g, energy density of 4 Wh/kg, and a power density of 0.4 W/kg at a concentration of 0.6 gram NiO. The effect of the addition of NiO on the characteristics of the CA-NiOn electrode was also studied such as crystallinity, crystal size, and porosity. The presentation of CA doped with NiO has the promising prospects as a supercapacitor base material.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Risdianto, I. W., Ahmad, A., & Ermawar, R. A. (2023). Synthesis of cellulose acetate (CA) from algae Gracilaria sp. composited with nickel oxide (NiO) as a supercapacitor base material. Communications in Science and Technology, 8(1), 87-92.


R. Asnawi, D. Nurhadiyanto, Z. Arifin, and A. Asmara, The Characteristic of Supercapacitors Circuit as a Future Electrical Energy Storage Media, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 1140 (2018), 012001.

Q. Cao, M. Zhu, J. Chen, Y. Song, Y. Li, and J. Zhou, Novel Lignin-Cellulose Based Carbon Nanofibers as High-Performance Supercapacitors, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces., (2019).

M. Wang, K. Liu, S. Dutta, D. S. Alessi, J. Rinklebe, Y. S. Ok, et al., Recycling of lithium iron phosphate batteries: Status, technologies, challenges, and prospects, Renew. Susta. Ener. Rev. Elsevier., 163(C), (2022).

K. Subasinghage, K. Gunawardane, N. Padmawansa, N. Kularatna, and M. Moradian, Modern Supercapacitors Technologies and Their Applicability in Mature Electrical Engineering Applications, J. Energ., 15 (2022), 7752.

G. E. Spina, F. Poli, A. Brilloni, D. Marchese, and F. Soavi, Natural Polymers for Green Supercapacitors, J. Energ., 13 (2020), 3115.

Z. Zhang, Z. Fang, Y. Xiang, D. Liu, Z. Xie, D. Qu, et al., Cellulose-based material in lithium-sulfur batteries: A review, J. Carbo. Polym., 255 (2021), 117469.

R. P. Juarsa, Analisis dan Strategi untuk Mendukung Prospek Perdagangan Rumput Laut Indonesia, J. Cen. Niag., 3 (2019), 4-7.

R. Battisti, E. Hafemann, C.A. Claumann, R.A.F. Machado, and C. Marangoni, Synthesis and characterization of cellulose acetate from royal palm tree agroindustrial waste, J. Polym. Engin. Sci., (2018).

M. Mahalakshmi, S. Selvanayagam, S. Selvasekarapandian, V. Moniha, R. Manjuladevi, and P. Sangeetha, Characterization of biopolymer electrolytes based on cellulose acetates with magnesium perchlorate (Mg(ClO4)2) for energy storage devices, J. Sci.: Advan. Mater. Dev., (2019).

R. Aihemaitituoheti, N.A. Alhebshi, and T. Abdullah, Effects of Precursors and Carbon Nanotubes on Electrochemical Properties of Electrospun Nickel Oxide Nanofibers-Based Supercapacitors, J. Molec., 26 (2021), 5656.

M. Diantoro, E.I.S. Suci, N. Zahro, F. Abdulloh, T. Ahmad, dan C. Laemthong, Modifikasi Selulosa Asetat dengan Oksida Logam (ZnO, TiO2 dan SnO2) Film Superkapasitor Simetrik, MSOpen. (2019).

S.A. Al Kiey, and M.S. Hasanin, Green and facile synthesis of nickel oxide-porous carbon composite as improved electrochemical electrodes for supercapacitor application from banana peel waste, Environ Sci Pollut Res., 28 (2021), 66888–66900.

Y.H. Navale, S.T. Navale, I.A. Dhole, F.J. tadler, and V.B. Patil, Specific capacitance, energy and power density coherence in electrochemically synthesized polyaniline-nickel oxide hybrid electrode, J. Organ. Elect., 57 (2018), 110–117.

W.G. Nunes, L.M. Da Silva, R. Vicentini, B.G.A. Freitas, L.H. Costa, A.M. Pascon, et al., Nickel oxide nanoparticles supported onto oriented multi-walled carbon nanotube as electrodes for electrochemical capacitors, J. Elect. Acta., 298 (2019), 468–483.

P. Wang, H. Zhou, C. Meng, Z. Wang, K. Akhtar, and A. Yuan, Cyanometallic framework-derived hierarchical Co3O4-NiO/graphene foam as high-performance binder-free electrodes for supercapacitors, J. Chem. Engin., 369 (2019), 57–63.

H. Doh, D.D. Kyle, and W. Scott, Preparation of Novel Seaweed Nanocomposite Film from Brown Seaweeds Laminaria Japonica and Sargassum Natans, J. Food Hydro., 105 (2020), 105744.

J. Basmal, I. Munifah, M. Rimmer and N. Paul, Identification and characterization of solid waste from Gracilaria sp. extraction, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 404 (2019), 012057.

P. Fei, L. Liao, B. Cheng, and J. Song, Quantitative analysis of cellulose acetate with a high degree of substitution by FTIR and its application, J. Analy. Metho., 9 (2017), 6194–6201.

Yusnimar, Evelyn, A. Aman, Chairul, S. Rahmadahana, and A. Amri, Manufacturing of high brightness dissolving pulp from sansevieria-trifasciata fiber by effective sequences processes, Commun. Sci. Technol., 7(1) (2022), 45-49.

H.M. Shaikh, A. Anis, A.M. Poulose, S.M. Al-Zahrani, N.A. Madhar, A. Alhamidi, et al., Synthesis and Characterization of Cellulose Triacetate Obtained from Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Trunk Mesh-Derived Cellulose, J. Molec., 27 (2022), 1434.

S.T.C.L. Ndruru, D. Wahyuningrum, B. Bundjali, and I.M. Arcana, Green simple microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of cellulose from theobroma Cacao L. (TCL) Husk, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 541 (2019), 1-13.

D. Umaningrum, D.A. Maria, N. Radna, H. Hasanuddin, M. Ani, and M. Diah, Variation of Iodine Mass and Acetylation Time On Cellulose Acetate Synthesis From Rice Straw, Indo. J. Chem. Res., 8 (2021), 228-233.

R. Andalia, J. Rahmi, dan H. Hira, Isolation and characterization of cellulose from ricehusk waste and sawdust with chemical method, J. Natur., 20 (2020).

F. Meng, G. Wang, X. Du, Z. Wang, S. Xu, and Y. Zhang, Preparation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers and nanocrystals from Liquefied Banana Pseudo-Stem Residue, Compos. Part B.: Engi., 160 (2018), 341-347.

Rahmayetty, and F. Sulaiman, Wastewater from the Arenga Starch Industry as a Potential Medium for Bacterial Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate Production, J. Polym., 15 (2023), 870.

Y. Liu, S. Jiang, W. Yan, M. He, J. Qin, S. Qin, et al., Crystallization Morphology Regulation on Enhancing Heat Resistance of Polylactic Acid, J. Polym., 12 (2020), 1563.

S.E.I. Suryani, U. Sa’adah, W.N.L. Amini, T. Suprayogi, A.A. Mustikasari, A. Taufiq, et al., Effect of ZnO and Annealing on the Hydrophobic Performance of x(ZnO)-CA-PLA, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 1093 (2018), 012003.

B. Delattre, R. Amin, J. Sander, J. De Coninck, A. P. Tomsia, and Y. M. Chiang, Impact of Pore Tortuosity on Electrode Kinetics in Lithium Battery Electrodes: Study in Directionally Freeze-Cast LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2(NCA), J. Elect. Socie., 165(2) (2018), A388–A395.

M. Diantoro, A.A. Mustikasari, N. Wijayanti, C. Yogihati, and A. Taufiq, Microstructure and dielectric properties of cellulose acetate-ZnO/ITO composite films based on water hyacinth, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 853 (2017), 012047.

J. Fischer, K. Thümmler, S. Fischer, M.I.G. Gonzalez, S. Oswald, D. Mikhailova, Activated Carbon Derived from Cellulose and Cellulose Acetate Microspheres as Electrode Materials for Symmetric Supercapacitors in Aqueous Electrolytes, J. Energ. Fuel., 35 (2021), 12653–12665.

M.A. Teixeira, C.P Maria, P.A. Teresa, and P.F. Helena, Electrospun Nanocomposites Containing Cellulose and Its Derivatives Modi?ed with Specialized Biomolecules for an Enhanced Wound Healing, J. nanomater., 19 (2020), 557.

E. Taer, Apriwandi, F. Hasanah, and R. Taslim, Nanofiber-enrich activated carbon coin derived from tofu dregs as electrode materials for supercapacitor, Commun. Sci. Technol., 6(1) (2021), 41-48.

H. Wei, H. Wang, A. Li, H. Li, D. Cui, M. Dong, et al., Advanced porous hierarchical activated carbon derived from agricultural wastes toward high performance supercapacitors, J. Alloy. Compoun., (2019), 153111.

E. Taer, L. Pratiwi, A. Apriwandi, W. S. Mustika, R. Taslim, and A. Agustino, Three-dimensional pore structure of activated carbon monolithic derived from hierarchically bamboo stem for supercapacitor application, Commun. Sci .Technol., 5(1) (2020), 22-30.