Effect of multi-walled CNTs polyurethane mats lamination with basalt fabrics reinforced-epoxy composites reviewed on tension and bending properties

Main Article Content

N. W. Sugiarti
K. Adi Atmika
I. D. G. Ary Subagia


Material technology continues to develop with various innovations and engineering to improve weaknesses in both mechanical and physical properties. In this study, electrospun fibres containing a multi-wall blend of CNT and Polyurethane (PU) with or without surfactant that laminated into a basalt fibre-reinforced composite were uniquely demonstrated. Multi-wall CNT 3wt% was added to the PU/MEK/DMF solution and produced using an electrospinning process. PU fibre mat containing 3wt% CNT was made without and with surfactants. Also, Basalt fibre reinforced epoxy composite as a control sample was produced. In addition, vacuum-assisted resin transfer printing has been used in the manufacture of composite panels containing both fibres. The aim of combining basalt fibre and PU CNT spun mats was to investigate their effect on the tensile and flexural mechanical properties. Tensile and flexural tests were carried out on a universal testing machine (UTM) in accordance to ASTM D 638 and ASTM D790 standards. FESEM and TEM on composite morphology test were done after testing. The results indicated that the basal matting fibre-reinforced epoxy composites stacked by PU mats with or without surfactants were affected by CNT inclusions. Nanofiber spun mats laminated in a basalt fibre composite lead to a considerable increase in both loads (i.e. tensile and flexural properties). The highest tensile and flexural load values occurred in the BF+PU-mat-2 sample with triton-x 100 surfactants compared to BFRP. The increase in tensile and flexural modulus values was at 13% and 17.3%, respectively. On the other hand, there was a decrease in shear failure due to tensile and bending loads due to the brittleness of the composite reinforcement. In conclusion, this CNF-mat lamination is highly suitable to be used to improve the strength properties of BFRP composites. It is highly recommended for automotive parts, marine compartments and storage insulation.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sugiarti, N. W., Adi Atmika, K., & Ary Subagia, I. D. G. (2023). Effect of multi-walled CNTs polyurethane mats lamination with basalt fabrics reinforced-epoxy composites reviewed on tension and bending properties. Communications in Science and Technology, 8(1), 100-107. https://doi.org/10.21924/cst.8.1.2023.1195


J. Liu, D. Yan, W. Pang, Y. Zhang. Design, fabrication and applications of soft network materials. Materials Today., 49 (2021) 324–350.

R.C. Yanlei Wanga, Yongshuai Wang, Baolin Wan, Baoguo Han, Gaochuang Cai. Strain and damage self-sensing of basalt fiber reinforced polymer laminates fabricated with carbon nanofibers/epoxy composites under tension. Composites Part A., 113 (2018) 40–52.

J.M. Stickel, M. Nagarajan. Glass fiber-reinforced composites: from formulation to application. International Journal of Applied Glass Science., 3 (2012) 122–136.

D.C. Davis, J.W. Wilkerson, J. Zhu, V.G. Hadjiev. A strategy for improving mechanical properties of a fiber reinforced epoxy composite using functionalized carbon nanotubes. Composites Science and Technology., 71 (2011) 1089–1097.

Y. Rachmadini, V.B.C. Tan, T.E. Tay. Enhancement of mechanical properties of composites through incorporation of cnt in vartm - a review. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites., 29 (2010) 2782–2807.

G. Amini, A.A. Gharehaghaji. Improving adhesion of electrospun nanofiber mats to supporting substrate by using adhesive bonding. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives., 86 (2018) 40–44.

A. Greco, A. Maffezzoli, G. Casciaro, F. Caretto. Mechanical properties of basalt fibers and their adhesion to polypropylene matrices. Composites Part B: Engineering., 67 (2014) 233–238.

V. Dhand, G. Mittal, K.Y. Rhee, S.J. Park, D. Hui. A short review on basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites. Composites Part B: Engineering., 73 (2015) 166–180.

S.S. Vinay, M.R. Sanjay, S. Siengchin, C.V. Venkatesh. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites filled with nano fillers: a short review. Materials Today: Proceedings., 52 (2022) 2460–2466.

V. Fiore, T. Scalici, G. Di Bella, A. Valenza. A review on basalt fi bre and its composites. Composites Part B 74., 74 (2015) 74–94.

K. Singha. A short review on basalt fiber. International Journal of Textile Science., 1 (2012) 19–28.

Salvatore Carmisciano, Igor Maria De Rosa, Fabrizio Sarasini, Alessio Tamburrano, Marco Valente. Basalt woven fiber reinforced vinylester composites: flexural and electrical properties. Materials and Design., 32 (2011) 337–342.

B. Su, T. Zhang, S. Chen, J. Hao, R. Zhang. Thermal properties of novel sandwich roof panel made of basalt fiber reinforced plastic material. Journal of Building Engineering., 52 (2022) 104478.

S.S. Vinay, M.R. Sanjay, S. Siengchin, C. V Venkatesh. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites filled with nano fillers: a short review. Materials Today: Proceedings., 52 (2022) 2460–2466.

J. Il Lim, K.Y. Rhee, H.J. Kim, D.H. Jung. Effect of stacking sequence on the flexural and fracture properties of carbon / basalt / epoxy hybrid composites. Carbon Letters., 15 (2014) 125–128.

G. Mittal, K.Y. Rhee. Chemical vapor deposition-based grafting of cnts onto basalt fabric and their reinforcement in epoxy-based composites. Composites Science and Technology., 165 (2018) 84–94.

J.M.K. R. Petrucci, C. Santulli, D. Puglia, F. Sarasini, L. Torre a. Mechanical characterisation of hybrid composite laminates based on basalt fibers in combination with flax , hemp and glass fibres manufactured by vacuum infusion. Materials and Design., 49 (2013) 728–735.

H. He, P. Yang, Z. Duan, Z. Wang, Y. Liu. Reinforcing effect of hybrid nano-coating on mechanical properties of basalt fiber/poly(lactic acid) environmental composites. Composites Science and Technology., 199 (2020) 108372.

A.B.D. Nandiyanto, G.C.S. Girsang, R. Maryanti, R. Ragadhita, S. Anggraeni, F.M. Fauzi, P. Sakinah, A.P. Astuti, D. Usdiyana, M. Fiandini, M.W. Dewi, A.S.M. Al-Obaidi. Isotherm adsorption characteristics of carbon microparticles prepared from pineapple peel waste. Communications in Science and Technology., 5 (2020) 31–39.

I.D.G. Ary Subagia, L.D. Tijing, Y. Kim, C.S. Kim, F.P. Vista Iv, H.K. Shon. Mechanical performance of multiscale basalt fiber-epoxy laminates containing tourmaline micro/nano particles. Composites Part B: Engineering., 58 (2014) 611–617.

L.D. Tijing, C.H. Park, S.J. Kang, A. Amarjargal, T.H. Kim, H.R. Pant, H.J. Kim, D.H. Lee, C.S. Kim. Improved mechanical properties of solution-cast silicone film reinforced with electrospun polyurethane nanofiber containing carbon nanotubes. Applied Surface Science., 264 (2013) 453–458.

C. Huang, X. Qian, R. Yang. Thermal conductivity of polymers and polymer nanocomposites. Materials Science and Engineering R: Reports., 132 (2018) 1–22.

L.D. Tijing, C.H. Park, W.L. Choi, M.T.G. Ruelo, A. Amarjargal, H.R. Pant, I.T. Im, C.S. Kim. Characterization and mechanical performance comparison of multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyurethane composites fabricated by electrospinning and solution casting. Composites Part B: Engineering., 44 (2013) 613–619.

M. Jafarpour, A.S. Aghdam, A. Ko?ar, F.Ç. Cebeci, M. Ghorbani. Electrospinning of ternary composite of pmma-peg-sio2 nanoparticles: comprehensive process optimization and electrospun properties. Materials Today Communications., 29 (2021).

Y. Zhou, F. Pervin, S. Jeelani, P.K. Mallick. Improvement in mechanical properties of carbon fabric-epoxy composite using carbon nanofibers. Journal of Materials Processing Technology., 198 (2008) 445–453.

A. Zucchelli, M.L. Focarete, C. Gualandi, S. Ramakrishna. Electrospun nanofibers for enhancing structural performance of composite materials. Polymers for Advanced Technologies., 22 (2011) 339–349.

K. Bilge, E. Ozden-Yenigun, E. Simsek, Y.Z. Menceloglu, M. Papila. Structural composites hybridized with epoxy compatible polymer/mwcnt nanofibrous interlayers. Composites Science and Technology., 72 (2012) 1639–1645.

N. Bhardwaj, S.C. Kundu. Electrospinning: a fascinating fiber fabrication technique. Biotechnology Advances., 28 (2010) 325–347.

N. Angel, Liping. Guo, F. Yan, H. Wang, Lingyan. Kong. Effect of processing parameters on the electrospinning of cellulose acetate studied by response surface methodology. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research., 2 (2020) 100015.

Z. Mohammadalizadeh, E. Bahremandi-Toloue, S. Karbasi. Recent advances in modification strategies of pre- and post-electrospinning of nanofiber scaffolds in tissue engineering. Reactive and Functional Polymers., 172 (2022) 105202.

S. Saraiva, P. Pereira, C.T. Paula, R.C. Rebelo, J.F.J. Coelho, A.C. Serra, A.C. Fonseca. Development of electrospun mats based on hydrophobic hydroxypropyl cellulose derivatives. Materials Science and Engineering C., 131 (2021) 112498.

L.D. Tijing, J.S. Choi, S. Lee, S.H. Kim, H.K. Shon. Recent progress of membrane distillation using electrospun nanofibrous membrane. Journal of Membrane Science., 453 (2014) 435–462.

X.W. and T.L. Jian Fang. Functional Applications of Electrospun Nanofibers, in: Nanofibers - Production, Properties and Functional Applications, 2020: pp. 283–343.

M. Shneider, X.M. Sui, I. Greenfeld, H.D. Wagner. Electrospinning of epoxy fibers. Polymer., 235 (2021) 124307.

M.Demir, I.Yilgor, E.Yilgor, B.Erman. Electrospinning of polyurethane fibers. Polymer., 43 (2002) 3303–3309.

C. Lu, P. Chen, J. Li, Y. Zhang. Computer simulation of electrospinning. part i. effect of solvent in electrospinning. Polymer., 47 (2006) 915–921.

D.H. Reneker, A.L. Yarin, E. Zussman, H. Xu. Electrospinning of Nanofibers from Polymer Solutions and Melts, 2007.

B.P. Sautter. Continuous Polymer Nanofibers Using Electrospinning, 2005.

O.S. Yördem, M. Papila, Y.Z. Mencelo?lu. Effects of electrospinning parameters on polyacrylonitrile nanofiber diameter: an investigation by response surface methodology. Materials and Design., 29 (2008) 34–44.

S.J. Yuanxin Zhou, Farhana Pervin, Vijaya K. Rangari. Fabrication and evaluation of carbon nano fiber filled carbon/epoxy composite. Materials Science and Engineering A., 426 (2006) 221–228.

I.D.G. Ary Subagia, Y. Kim. A study on flexural properties of carbon-basalt/epoxy hybrid composites. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology., 27 (2013) 987–992.

I.D.G.A. Subagia, Y. Kim. Tensile behavior of hybrid epoxy composite laminate containing carbon and basalt fibers. Science and Engineering of Composite Materials., 21 (2014) 211–217.

A.M. Elsharif, O.A. Bukhari. Carbon nanofilms blended with polyvinyl pyrrolidone and triton x-100 for energy harvesting application. Oriental Journal of Chemistry., 36 (2020) 397–409.

H. Yoon, H. Kim, P. Matteini, B. Hwang. Research trends on the dispersibility of carbon nanotube suspension with surfactants in their application as electrodes of batteries: a mini-review. Batteries., 8 (2022).

D. Švára, B. Kop?ivová, T. Picek, P. Mikeš, A. Kluk, M. Šoóš. The impact of the lamination pressure on the properties of electrospinned nanofibrous films. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences., 173 (2022) 106170.

C.J. Thompson, G.G. Chase, A.L. Yarin, D.H. Reneker. Effects of parameters on nanofiber diameter determined from electrospinning model. Polymer., 48 (2007) 6913–6922.

D.C. Davis, J.W. Wilkerson, J. Zhu, D.O.O. Ayewah. Improvements in mechanical properties of a carbon fiber epoxy composite using nanotube science and technology. Composite Structures., 92 (2010) 2653–2662.

J.H. Lee, K.Y. Rhee, S.J. Park. The tensile and thermal properties of modified cnt-reinforced basalt/epoxy composites. Materials Science and Engineering A., 527 (2010) 6838–6843.

K. Molnar, L.M. Vas, T. Czigany. Determination of tensile strength of electrospun single nanofibers through modeling tensile behavior of the nanofibrous mat. Composites Part B: Engineering., 43 (2012) 15–21.

R. Eslami-Farsani, H. Aghamohammadi, S.M.R. Khalili, H. Ebrahimnezhad-Khaljiri, H. Jalali. Recent trend in developing advanced fiber metal laminates reinforced with nanoparticles: A review study, 2022.

D.R. Bortz, C. Merino, I. Martin-Gullon. Mechanical characterization of hierarchical carbon fiber/nanofiber composite laminates. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing., 42 (2011) 1584–1591.

H. Li, Y. Qiu. Dispersion, sedimentation and aggregation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as affected by single and binary mixed surfactants. Royal Society Open Science., 6 (2019).

D.C. Davis, B.D. Whelan. An experimental study of interlaminar shear fracture toughness of a nanotube reinforced composite. Composites Part B: Engineering., 42 (2011) 105–116.

W. Chen, H. Shen, M.L. Auad, C. Huang, S. Nutt. Basalt fiber-epoxy laminates with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing., 40 (2009) 1082–1089.

B. Ashrafi, J. Guan, V. Mirjalili, Y. Zhang, L. Chun, P. Hubert, B. Simard, C.T. Kingston, O. Bourne, A. Johnston. Enhancement of mechanical performance of epoxy/carbon fiber laminate composites using single-walled carbon nanotubes. Composites Science and Technology., 71 (2011) 1569–1578.

M.T. Kim, K.Y. Rhee, S.J. Park, D. Hui. Effects of silane-modified carbon nanotubes on flexural and fracture behaviors of carbon nanotube-modified epoxy/basalt composites. Composites Part B: Engineering., 43 (2012) 2298–2302.

Y. Xu, J. Ndayikengurukiye, A.T. Akono, P. Guo. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced polymer ceramic composites by wet electrospinning. Manufacturing Letters., 31 (2022) 91–95.

M.F. Abdullah, A. Andriyana, F. Muhamad, B.C. Ang. Effect of core-to-shell flowrate ratio on morphology, crystallinity, mechanical properties and wettability of poly(lactic acid) fibers prepared via modified coaxial electrospinning. Polymer., 237 (2021) 124378.

A.J. Robinson, A. Pérez-Nava, S.C. Ali, J.B. González-Campos, J.L. Holloway, E.M. Cosgriff-Hernandez. Comparative analysis of fiber alignment methods in electrospinning. Matter., 4 (2021) 821–844.

N. Angel, S. Li, F. Yan, L. Kong. Recent advances in electrospinning of nanofibers from bio-based carbohydrate polymers and their applications. Trends in Food Science and Technology., 120 (2022) 308–324.

A.M. Alghamdi, F. Fadhillah. Thin film composite polyelectrolyte multilayer nanofiltration membrane fabricated using spin assisted layer by layer assembly: application of solution diffusion film model. Communications in Science and Technology., 5 (2020) 10–15.

G.W. Beckermann. Nanofiber interleaving veils for improving the performance of composite laminates. Reinforced Plastics., 61 (2017) 289–293.

H. Wang, Y. Zhang, H. Niu, L. Wu, X. He, T. Xu, N. Wang, Y. Yao. An electrospinning–electrospraying technique for connecting electrospun fibers to enhance the thermal conductivity of boron nitride/polymer composite films. Composites Part B: Engineering., 230 (2022) 109505.

H. Aghamohammadi, R. Eslami-Farsani, A. Tcharkhtchi. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical behavior of basalt fibers metal laminates: an experimental study. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives., 98 (2020) 102538.

Y. Chen, L. Sui, H. Fang, C. Ding, Z. Li, S. Jiang, H. Hou. Superior mechanical enhancement of epoxy composites reinforced by polyimide nanofibers via a vacuum-assisted hot-pressing. Composites Science and Technology., 174 (2019) 20–26.

D. Alhazov, E. Zussman. Study of the energy absorption capabilities of laminated glass using carbon nanotubes. Composites Science and Technology., 72 (2012) 681–687.