Utilization of glycerol solution for hydrogen production by a combination of photocatalysis and electrolysis processes with Fe-TiO2 nanotubes

Main Article Content

Calvin Santoso


A combination of photocatalysis and electrolysis (photoelectrocatalysis) for the simultaneous degradation of glycerol and hydrogen production using Fe-TiO2 nanotubes has been studied. This photocatalyst was synthesized through Ti anodization followed by Fe deposition with Fe(NO3)3 as precursor using the SILAR (successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction) method. The effects of Fe loading (based on the number of SILAR cycles) on TiO2 nanotubes and glycerol concentration were examined. The generated TiO2 nanotubes were 100% anatase phase with crystallite size between 25 and 29 nm. The results of UV-Vis DRS showed that the number of SILAR cycles of Fe dopant determined the magnitude of the decrease in the band gap of photocatalysts up to 2.74 eV, notably lower than a typical value of 3.15 eV associated with TiO2 anatase. FESEM/EDX, TEM, and HRTEM characterizations indicated the formation of neatly arranged TiO2 nanotubes with Fe deposited on the surface. The photoelectrocatalytic process increased the hydrogen produced by up to 5 times compared to a single photocatalytic or electrolysis process. The photocatalyst sample with Fe deposited on TiO2 nanotubes via a SILAR method with 15 cycles outperformed its bare TiO2 nanotube counterpart by producing hydrogen by 2.5 times (405.8 mmol/m2). Glycerol photo-reforming at 10% concentration produced hydrogen 6 times greater than water splitting (0% glycerol).


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Santoso, C., Ratnawati, & Slamet. (2023). Utilization of glycerol solution for hydrogen production by a combination of photocatalysis and electrolysis processes with Fe-TiO2 nanotubes. Communications in Science and Technology, 8(2), 208-215. https://doi.org/10.21924/cst.8.2.2023.1280
Author Biographies

Calvin Santoso, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia

Chemical Engineering Department

Ratnawati, Department of Chemical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Indonesia, Serpong 15314, Indonesia

Chemical Engineering Department


1. Y. Jie, et al., WO3-based materials for photoeletcrocatalytic glycerol upgrading into glyceraldehyde: Unravelling the synergistic photo-and electro-catalytic effects, Appl. Catal. B Environ. 318 (2022) 121843.
2. H. L. Wei, V. Truong-Giang and C. Chia-Ying, Converting glycerol aqueous solution to hydrogen energy and dihydroxxyacetone by the BiVO4 photoelectrochemical cell, Electrochim. Acta 322 (2019) 134725.
3. P. Mardina, H. Wijayanti, A. Tuhuloula, E. Hijriyati and Sarifah. Corncob residue as heterogenous acid catalys for green synthesis of biodiesel: A short review, Commun. Sci. Tech. 6 (2021) 60-68.
4. Slamet, Ratnawati, J. Gunzlazuardi and E. L. Dewi, Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Pt deposited on titania nanotube arrays for the hydrogen production with glycerol as a sacrificial agent, Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 42 (2017) 24014-24025.
5. Ratnawati, Slmaet, V. Wongso, J. Gunzlazuardi and M. Ibadurrohman, A Comparative Study of Pt Depositing Methods (Chemical Reduction vs Photo-Assisted Deposition) onto TiO¬2 Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Photo-Production, J. Eng. Technol. Sci. 54 (2022) 220612.
6. A. B. D. Nandiyanto, R. Zaen, and R. Oktiani, Correlation between crystallite size and photocatalytic performance of micrometer-sized monoclinic WO3 particles, Arab. J. Chem. 13 (2020) 1283–1296.
7. A.B.D. Nandiyanto, R. Ragadhita, R. Oktiani, A. Sukmafitri, and M. Fiandin, Crystallite Sizes On The Photocatalytic Performance Of Submicron WO3 Particles, J. Eng. Sci. Technol. 15 (3) (2020) 1506 – 1519.
8. O. Arutanti, et al., Influences of Porous Structurization and Pt Addition on the Improvement of Photocatalytic Performance of WO3 Particles, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7 (5) 3009-3017.
9. S. Sood, A. Umar, S.K. Mehta, and S.K. Kansal, Highly effective Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles photocatalysts for visible-light-driven photocatalytic degradation of toxic organic compounds, J. Colloid Interface Sci.. 450 (2015) 213-223.
10. Y. Ohama, and D. eds. V. Gemert, Application of titanium dioxide photocatalysis to construction materials: state-of-the-art report of the RILEM Technical Committee 194-TDP, Springer Science & Business Media 5 (2011).
11. R. Singh and S. Dutta, Integrated photocatalytic hydrogen production and pollutants or wastes treatment: prospects and challenges, Sustainable Fuel Technologies Handbook, (2021) 541-549.
12. A. Galinska, and J. Walendziewski, Photocatalytic water splitting over Pt? TiO2 in the presence of sacrificial reagents, Energy Fuels 19(3) (2005) 1143-1147.
13. F. Fatmawati, G. Shintavia, L. Qadariyah, and M. Mahfud, Production of Hydrogen from glycerol with Heating Convention Method based of ?-Alumina, J. Teknik ITS 3(2) (2014) 146-150.
14. Ratnawati, J. Gunlazuardi, E. L. Dewi and Slamet, Effect of NaBF4 addioton on the anodic synthesis of TiO¬2 nanotube arrays photocatalyst for production of hydrogen from glycerol-water soluyion, Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 29 (2014) 16927-16935.
15. R. Paritiwi, M. Ibadurrohman, E.L. Dewi and Slamet, A novel approach in the synthesis of CdS/titania nanotubes array nanocomposites to obtain better photocatlayst performance, Commun. Sci. Technol. 8 (2023) 16-24.
16. J. S. Sagar, G. M. Madhu, J. Koteswararao and P. Dixit, Studies on thermal and mechanical behavior of nano TiO2-epoxy polymer composite, Commun. Sci. Technol. 7 (2022) 38-44.
17. F. Riyanti, Hasanudin, A. Rachmat, W. Purwaningrum, and P. L. Hariani, Photolacatalytic degradation of methylene blue and Congo red dyes from aqueous solutions by bentonite-Fe3O4 magnetic, Commun. Sci. Technol. 8 (2023) 1-9.
18. P. Roy, S. Berger and P. Schmuki, TiO2 nanotubes: synthesis and applications, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50 (2011) 2904-2939.
19. E. D. Rokhmawati, Analysis of Dopant Selection in Reducing Band Gap Energy in TiO2 Layer Synthesis, In Seminar Nasional Lontar Physics Forum ( 2019) 42-46.
20. R. Dholam, N. Patel, M. Adami, and A. Miotello, Hydrogen production by photocatalytic water-splitting using Cr-or Fe-doped TiO2 composite thin films photocatalyst, Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 34 (2009) 5337-5346.
21. A.E.R. Mohamed and S. Rohani, Modified TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs): progressive strategies towards visible light responsive photoanode, a review, Energy Environ. Sci. 4 (2011) 1065-1086.
22. T. Elysabeth, K. Mulia, M. Ibadurrohman, and E. L. Dewi, A comparative study of CuO deposition methods on titania nanotube arrays for photoelectrocatalytic ammonia degradation and hydrogen production, Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 46 (2021) 26873-26885.
23. R.A. Pratiwi, and A. B. D Nandiyanto, How to Read and Interpret UV-VIS Spectrophotometric Results in Determining the Structure of Chemical Compounds, Indones. J. Edu. Res. and Technol. 2(1) (2022) 1-20.
24. X. Shi, et al., A mild in-situ method to construct Fe-doped cauliflower-like rutile TiO¬2 photocatalysis for degredation of organic dye in wastewater, Catal. 9 (2019) 426.
25. R. Muttaqin, et al., Degradation of methylene blue-ciprofloxacin and hydrogen production simultaneously using combination of electrocoagulation and photocatalytic process with Fe-TiNTAs, Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 47 (2022) 28272-18284.
26. S. Fatimah, R. Ragadhita, D.F. Al Husaeni, and A.B.D. Nandiyanto, How to Calculate Crystallite Size from X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) using Scherrer Method, ASEAN J. Sci. Eng. 2 (1) (2022) 65-76.
27. S. Slamet, L.F. Pelawi1, M. Ibadurrohman1, and R. Yudiant, Ratnawati, Simultaneous Decolorization of Tartrazine and Production of H2 in a Combined Electrocoagulation and Photocatalytic Processes using CuO-TiO2 Nanotube Arrays: Literature Review and Experiment, Indones. J. Sci. Technol. 7(3) (2022) 385-404.
28. Y.D. Yolanda, and A.B.D. Nandiyanto, How to Read and Calculate Diameter Size from Electron Microscopy Images, ASEAN J. Sci. Eng. Edu. 2(1) (2022) 11-36.
29. M. Ismael, Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production and degredation of organic pollutants from Fe (III) doped TiO¬2 nanoparticles, J. Environ Chem. Eng. 8 (2020) 103679.
30. V. Kumaravel, S. Mathew, J. Bartlett, and S.C. Pillai, Photocatalytic hydrogen production using metal-doped TiO2: A review of recent advances, Appl. Catal. B Environ. 244 (2019) 1021-1064.
31. I. Papagiannis, N. Balis, V. Dracopoulos and P. Lianos, Photoelectrocatalytic Hydrogen Peroxide Production Using Nanoparticulate WO3 as Photocatalyst and Glycerol or Ethanol as Sacrificial Agents, Processes 8 (2019) 37.
32. V. M. Daskalaki and D. I. Kondarides, Efficient production of hydrogen by photo-induced reforming of glycerol at ambient conditions, Catal. Today 144 (2009) 75-80.