Main Article Content
Industrialization plays important role in the economy of developing countries, including increasing community welfare. However, the presence of poorly industries waste disposal system has negative impact to the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to overcome this problem with low-cost technology, called adsorption. In this research, silylated-montmorillonite (sMMt) has been successfully prepared as supporting material for adsorption of methylene blue by chitosan. The sMMt was characterized by FTIR, XRD, and elemental mapping techniques. The chitosan/sMMt composites were prepared through dissolution-precipitation method and produced rod-like morphology as observed by SEM. The adsorption process was carried out in a batch method by studying the pH and the adsorption contact time. The adsorption kinetic mechanism of the chitosan/sMMt nanocomposite followed pseudo-second order rather than Lagergren model indicating chemisorption predominant. The addition of silylated-montmorillonite into chitosan enhanced the methylene blue dye removal performance, which evidenced by improving Qe values by 10% compared to chitosan.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Access authors retain the copyrights of their papers, and all open access articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.
The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.
While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
2. O. J. Hao, H. Kim, P.-C. Chiang, Decolorization of Wastewater, Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30 (2000) 449–505.
3. A. K. Tripathi, N. S. K. Harsh, N. Gupta, Fungal treatment of industrial effluents: a mini-review, Life Sci. J. 4 (2007) 78–81.
4. V. Ponnusami, R. Madhuram, V. Krithika, S. N. Srivastava, Effects of process variables on kinetics of methylene blue sorption onto untreated guava (Psidium guajava) leaf powder: Statistical analysis, Chem. Eng. J. 140 (2008) 609–613.
5. M. Rafatullah, O. Sulaiman, R. Hashim, A. Ahmad, Adsorption of methylene blue on low-cost adsorbents: A review, J. Hazard. Mater. 177 (2010) 70–80.
6. T. Robinson, G. McMullan, R. Marchant, P. Nigam, Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: A critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative, Bioresour. Technol. 77 (2001) 247–255.
7. B. Shi, G. Li, D. Wang, C. Feng, H. Tang, Removal of direct dyes by coagulation: The performance of preformed polymeric aluminum species, J. Hazard. Mater. 143 (2007) 567–574.
8. A. Akbari, J. C. Remigy, P. Aptel, Treatment of textile dye effluent using a polyamide-based nanofiltration membrane, Chem. Eng. Process. Process Intensif. 41 (2002) 601–609.
9. A. Bes-Piía, J. A. Mendoza-Roca, M. I. Alcaina-Miranda, A. Iborra-Clar, M. I. Iborra-Clar, Combination of physico-chemical treatment and nanofiltration to reuse wastewater of a printing, dyeing and finishing textile industry, Desalination. 157 (2003) 73–80.
10. V. K. Gupta, R. Jain, A. Mittal, T. A. Saleh, A. Nayak, S. Agarwal, S. Sikarwar, Photo-catalytic degradation of toxic dye amaranth on TiO2/UV in aqueous suspensions, Mater. Sci. Eng. C. 32 (2012) 12–17.
11. A. Bouarioua, M. Zerdaoui, Photocatalytic activities of TiO2 layers immobilized on glass substrates by dip-coating technique toward the decolorization of methyl orange as a model organic pollutant, J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 5 (2017) 1565–1574.
12. J. Labanda, J. Sabaté, J. Llorens, Modeling of the dynamic adsorption of an anionic dye through ion-exchange membrane adsorber, J. Memb. Sci. 340 (2009) 234–240.
13. W. S. Wan Ngah, L. C. Teong, M. A. K. M. Hanafiah, Adsorption of dyes and heavy metal ions by chitosan composites: A review, Carbohydr. Polym. 83 (2011) 1446–1456.
14. Z. M. Lazim, E. Mazuin, T. Hadibarata, Z. Yusop, The removal of methylene blue and remazol brilliant blue r dyes by using orange peel and spent tea leaves, Jurnal Teknologi 11 (2015) 129–135.
15. N. A. Rahmat, A. A. Ali, Salmiati, N. Hussain, M. S. Muhamad, R. A. Kristanti, T. Hadibarata, Removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue R from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption Using Pineapple Leaf Powder and Lime Peel Powder, Water. Air. Soil Pollut. 227 (2016).
16. M. A. Ahmad, R. Alrozi, Optimization of preparation conditions for mangosteen peel-based activated carbons for the removal of Remazol Brilliant Blue R using response surface methodology, Chem. Eng. J. 165 (2010) 883–890.
17. L. Wang, A. Wang, Adsorption characteristics of Congo Red onto the chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposite, J. Hazard. Mater. 147 (2007) 979–985.
18. H. Y. Zhu, R. Jiang, L. Xiao, Adsorption of an anionic azo dye by chitosan/kaolin/?-Fe2O3 composites, Appl. Clay Sci. 48 (2010) 522–526.
19. G. Crini, P. M. Badot, Application of chitosan, a natural aminopolysaccharide, for dye removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption processes using batch studies: A review of recent literature, Prog. Polym. Sci. 33 (2008) 399–447.
20. I. M. Lipatova, L. I. Makarova, A. A. Yusova, Adsorption removal of anionic dyes from aqueous solutions by chitosan nanoparticles deposited on the fibrous carrier, Chemosphere. 212 (2018) 1155–1162.
21. XinxinYang, Y. Li, H. Gao, C. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Zhou, One-step fabrication of chitosan-Fe(OH)3 beads for efficient adsorption of anionic dyes, Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 117 (2018) 30–41.
22. R. C. da Silva, S. B. de Aguiar, P. L. R. da Cunha, R. C. M. de Paula, J. P. A. Feitosa, Effect of microwave on the synthesis of polyacrylamide-g-chitosan gel for azo dye removal, React. Funct. Polym. 148 (2020) 104491.
23. A. Mokhtar, S. Abdelkrim, A. Djelad, A. Sardi, B. Boukoussa, M. Sassi, A. Bengueddach, Adsorption behavior of cationic and anionic dyes on magadiite-chitosan composite beads, Carbohydr. Polym. 229 (2020) 115399.
24. A. Gürses, S. Karaca, Ç. Do?ar, R. Bayrak, M. Açikyildiz, M. Yalçin, Determination of adsorptive properties of clay/water system: Methylene blue sorption, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 269 (2004) 310–314.
25. W. T. Tsai, C. Y. Chang, C. H. Ing, C. F. Chang, Adsorption of acid dyes from aqueous solution on activated bleaching earth, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 275 (2004) 72–78.
26. A. Gürses, Ç. Do?ar, M. Yalçin, M. Açikyildiz, R. Bayrak, S. Karaca, The adsorption kinetics of the cationic dye, methylene blue, onto clay, J. Hazard. Mater. 131 (2006) 217–228.
27. G. K. Sarma, S. SenGupta, K.G. Bhattacharyya, Methylene blue adsorption on natural and modified clays, Sep. Sci. Technol. 46 (2011) 1602–1614.
28. A. Nejib, D. Joelle, A. Fadhila, G. Sophie, T.-A. Malika, Adsorption of anionic dye on natural and organophilic clays: effect of textile dyeing additives, Desalin. Water Treat. (2014) 1–16.
29. M. A. Moreira, K. J. Ciuffi, V. Rives, M. A. Vicente, R. Trujillano, A. Gil, S. A. Korili, E. H. de Faria, Effect of chemical modification of palygorskite and sepiolite by 3-aminopropyltriethoxisilane on adsorption of cationic and anionic dyes, Appl. Clay Sci. 135 (2017) 394–404.
30. M. R. Acocella, C. E. Corcione, A. Giuri, M. Maggio, A. Maffezzoli, G. Guerra, Graphene oxide as a catalyst for ring opening reactions in amine crosslinking of epoxy resins, RSC Adv. 6 (2016) 23858–23865.
31. Y. N. Bespalko, E. N. Shved, Experimental and theoretical study on the kinetics and mechanism of the amine-catalyzed reaction of oxiranes with carboxylic acids, React. Kinet. Mech. Catal. 126 (2019) 903–919.
32. S. Bakhtin, E. Shved, Y. Bespalko, T. Tyurina, V. Palchykov, Detailing the elementary stages in the oxirane ring opening reactions with carboxylic acids catalyzed by tertiary amines, J. Phys. Org. Chem. e4071 (2020) 1–14.
33. P. Yuan, P.D. Southon, Z. Liu, M. E. R. Green, J. M. Hook, S. J. Antill, C. J. Kepert, Functionalization of halloysite clay nanotubes by grafting with???-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, J. Phys. Chem. C. 112 (2008) 15742–15751.
34. N. N. Herrera, J. M. Letoffe, J. P. Reymond, E. Bourgeat-Lami, Silylation of laponite clay particles with monofunctional and trifunctional vinyl alkoxysilanes, J. Mater. Chem. 15 (2005) 863.
35. M. Ghiyasiyan-Arani, M. Salavati-Niasari, Effect of Li2CoMn3O8 Nanostructures Synthesized by a Combustion Method on Montmorillonite K10 as a Potential Hydrogen Storage Material, J. Phys. Chem. C. 122 (2018) 16498–16509.
36. F. F. Wang, J. Liu, H. Li, C. L. Liu, R. Z. Yang, W. S. Dong, Conversion of cellulose to lactic acid catalyzed by erbium-exchanged montmorillonite K10, Green Chem. 17 (2015) 2455–2463.
37. Ü. Geçgel, H. Kolanc?lar, Adsorption of Remazol Brilliant Blue R on activated carbon prepared from a pine cone, Nat. Prod. Res. 26 (2012) 659–664.
38. I. Feddal, a. Ramdani, S. Taleb, E. M. Gaigneaux, N. Batis, N. Ghaffour, Adsorption capacity of methylene blue, an organic pollutant, by montmorillonite clay, Desalin. Water Treat. (2013) 1–8.
39. P. Daraei, S. S. Madaeni, E. Salehi, N. Ghaemi, H. S. Ghari, M. A. Khadivi, E. Rostami, Novel thin film composite membrane fabricated by mixed matrix nanoclay/chitosan on PVDF microfiltration support: Preparation, characterization and performance in dye removal, J. Memb. Sci. 436 (2013) 97–108.
40. E. Heraldy, S.J. Santosa, Triyono, K. Wijaya, Anionic and cationic dyes removal from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto synthetic Mg/Al hydrotalcite-like compound, Indones. J. Chem. 15 (2015) 234–241.
41. K. G. Bhattacharyya, A. Sharma, Azadirachta indica leaf powder as an effective biosorbent for dyes: A case study with aqueous Congo Red solutions, J. Environ. Manage. 71 (2004) 217–229.
42. C. A. P. Almeida, N. A. Debacher, A. J. Downs, L. Cottet, C. A. D. Mello, Removal of methylene blue from colored effluents by adsorption on montmorillonite clay, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 332 (2009) 46–53.
43. S. Sun, A. Wang, Adsorption kinetics of Cu(II) ions using N,O-carboxymethyl-chitosan, J. Hazard. Mater. 131 (2006) 103–111.
44. C. C. Wang, L. C. Juang, T. C. Hsu, C. K. Lee, J. F. Lee, F. C. Huang, Adsorption of basic dyes onto montmorillonite, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 273 (2004) 80–86.