Fabrication and characterization of fly ash-based geopolymer and its performance for immobilization of heavy metal cations

Main Article Content

Rendy Muhamad Iqbal
Warih Supriadi
R.Y. Perry Burhan
Silvana Dwi Nurherdiana
Ririn Eva Hidayati
Subaer Subaer
Ridho Bayuaji
Hamzah Fansuri


In this study, the geopolymer from fly ash as based-raw material has been examined on the ability of several heavy metal ions immobilization. The fly ash has been provided from PT IPMOMI which firstly analyzed the physical and chemical properties. Fly ash and heavy metals were mixed with an activator base until homogeneous, then cast into a cylindrical shape mold following ASTM C 39-86 and left for 7 days. After that, the geopolymer was characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, compressive strength test and TCLP. The diffractogram of PT. IPMOMI fly ash exhibited the existence of mullite, alumina and iron oxide phase, which were suitable with XRF result. From FTIR spectra, the vibration on finger print area appeared indicating the vibration of T-O-T from geopolymer network. The observation revealed that the addition of Pb2+ cations caused microcracking from SEM image and affected the compressive strength of the geopolymer. Sr2+ was an ion that was very easily
leached compared to other three ions, and it caused a weak interaction between Sr2+ and geopolymer network. The higher amount of metal ions into the geopolymer network reduced the compressive strength of geopolymer. Sr2+-geopolymer had a lower compressive strength compared to Pb2+, Cd2+, and Co2+.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Iqbal, R. M., Supriadi, W., Burhan, R. P., Nurherdiana, S. D., Hidayati, R. E., Subaer, S., Bayuaji, R., & Fansuri, H. (2022). Fabrication and characterization of fly ash-based geopolymer and its performance for immobilization of heavy metal cations. Communications in Science and Technology, 7(2), 112-118. https://doi.org/10.21924/cst.7.2.2022.868


1. H. Y. Leong, D. E. L. Ong, J. G. Sanjayan, and A. Nazari, Suitability of Sarawak and Gladstone fly ash to produce geopolymers: A physical, chemical, mechanical, mineralogical and microstructural analysis, Ceram. Int., 42 (2016) 9613–9620.
2. W. Zhou, C. Yan, P. Duan, Y. Liu, Z. Zhang, X. Qiu, D. Li. A comparative study of high- and low-Al2O3 fly ash based-geopolymers: The role of mix proportion factors and curing temperature, Mater. Des., 95 (2016) 63–74.
3. R.M. Iqbal, A. Damsyik, R. Agnestisia, N.W.P.M. Sari. Characteristics and Chemical Composition of Fly Ash From Pulang Pisau’s Power Plant as A Potential Material for Synthesis of Aluminosilicate Materials. Jurnal Ilmiah Berkala: Sains dan Terapan Kimia. 16 (2022) 125-231.
4. N. Hui-Teng, H. Cheng-Yong, L. Yun-Ming, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, C. Rojviriya, H.M. Razi, S. Garus, M. Nabialek, W. Sochacki, I.M.Z. Abidin, N. Yong-Sing, A. Sliwa, A.V. Sandu. Preparation of Fly Ash-Ladle Furnace Slag Blended Geopolymer Foam via Pre-Foaming Method with Polyoxyethylene Alkyether Sulphate Incorporation. Materials. 15 (2022).
5. R. E. Hidayati, G.R. Anindika, F.S. Faradila, C.I.B. Pamungkas, I. Hidayati, D. Prasetyoko, H. Fansuri, Geopolymerization of Fly Ashes from 6 Indonesian Power Plants Using A Standardized Recipes, IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 864 (2020).
6. H. Fansuri, E. Erviana, M. Rosyidah, R. M. Iqbal, W. P. Utomo, and Nurlina, Immobilization of Chromium from Liquid Waste of Electroplating Home-Industries by Fly Ash Geopolymerization, IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 367 (2018).
7. W.M.W. Ibrahim, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, R. Ahmad, A.V. Sandu, P. Vizureanu, O. Benjeddou, A. Rahim, M. Ibrahim, A.S. Sauffi. Chemical Distributions of Different Sodium Hydroxide Molarities on Fly Ash/Dolomite-Based Geopolymer. Materials. 15 (2022) 6163.
8. R. Mohadi, N. R. Palapa, T. Taher, P. M. S. B. N. Siregar, Normah, N. Juleati, A. Wijaya, A. Lesbani. Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by biochar derived from rice husk. Commun. Sci. Technol. 6 (2021) 11-17.
9. N. Yong-Sing, L. Yun-Ming, H. Cheng-Yong, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, P. Pakanawit, P. Vizureanu, M.S. Khalid, N. Hui-Teng, H. Yong-Jie, M. Nabiatek, P. Pietrusiewicz, S. Garus, W. Scohacki, A. Sliwa. Improvements of Flexural Properties and Thermal Performance in Thin Geopolymer Based on Fly Ash and Ladle Furnace Slag Using Borax Decahydrates. Materials. 15 (2022).
10. M. Almadani, R.A. Razak, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, R. Mohamed. Geopolymer-Based Artificial Aggregates: A Review on Methods of Producing, Properties, and Improving Techniques. Materials. 15 (2022) 5516.
11. M.H. Yazid, M.A. Faris, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, M. Nabialek, S.Z.A. Rahim, M.A.A.M. Salleh, M. Kheimi, A.V. Sandu, A. Rylski, B. Jez. Contribution of Interfacial Bonding towards Geopolymers Properties in Geopolymers Reinforced Fibers: A Review. Materials. 15 (2022).
12. B. Guo, D. Pan, B. Liu, A.A. Volinsky, M. Fincan, J. Du, S. Zhang, Immobilization mechanism of Pb in fly ash-based geopolymer, Constr. Build. Mater., 134 (2017) 123–130.
13. V. Nikoli?, M. Komljenovi?, N. Marjanovi?, Z. Baš?arevi?, and R. Petrovi?, Lead immobilization by geopolymers based on mechanically activated fly ash, Ceram. Int., 40 (2014) 8479–8488.
14. M. Kheimi, I.H. Aziz, M.M.A.B. Abdullah, M. Almadani, R.A. Razak. Waste Material via Geopolymerization for Heavy-Duty Application: A Review. Materials. 15 (2022).
15. M. Komljenovi?, Z. Baš?arevi?, and V. Bradi?, Mechanical and microstructural properties of alkali-activated fly ash geopolymers, J. Hazard. Mater., 181 (2010) 35–42.
16. F. S. Faradilla, D.T. Nugroho, R.E. Hidayati, N. Nurlina, R. Bayuaji, D. Hartanto, H. Fansuri, Optimization of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio in the preparation of geopolymer from high calcium fly ash,IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., 616 (2020).
17. Q. Tian, S. Nakama, and K. Sasaki, Immobilization of cesium in fly ash-silica fume based geopolymers with different Si/Al molar ratios, Sci. Total Environ., 687 (2019) 1127–1137.
18. V. Nikoli?, M. Komljenovi?, N. Džunuzovi?, T. Ivanovi?, and Z. Miladinovi?, Immobilization of hexavalent chromium by fly ash-based geopolymers, Compos. Part B Eng., 112 (2017) 213–223.
19. D.A.P. Wardani, L. Rosmainar, R.M. Iqbal, S.N. Simarmata. Synthesis and characterization of magnetic adsorbent based on Fe2O3-fly ash from Pulang Pisau’s power plant of Central Kalimantan. In: IOP Conference Series: Mater. Sci. Eng. 980 (2020).