Synthesis and characterization of plate-like vanadium doped SrBi4Ti4O15 prepared via KCl molten salt method

Main Article Content

Puspa Sari
Suci Noerfaiqotul Himmah
Arie Hardian
Nur Aini
Anton Prasetyo


SrBi4Ti4O15 is one of four-layered Aurivillius compound family member that can be used as photocatalyst material that works in the violet light region. To expand its work function range can be conducted by doped with metal elements to SrBi4Ti4O15 as results reduced its band gap energy. In this research, we synthesized vanadium doped SrBi4Ti4O15 (SrBi4Ti4-nVnO15 (n= 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15)) by molten salt method (used KCl salt). The diffractogram sample showed that the target compounds SrBi4Ti4-nVnO15 (n= 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15) had been successfully synthesized with the space group A21am without impurities. The SEM micrographs showed the particle shape of SrBi4Ti4-nVnO15 (n= 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15) was plate-like (sheets) and V dopant did not cause agglomeration. The result of Kubelka-Munk equation calculation showed that the V dopant can reduced the band gap energy value from 3.04 eV (408 nm) to 2.84 eV (437 nm)


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sari, P., Himmah, S. N., Hardian, A., Aini, N., & Prasetyo, A. (2022). Synthesis and characterization of plate-like vanadium doped SrBi4Ti4O15 prepared via KCl molten salt method. Communications in Science and Technology, 7(2), 175-180.


1. R. Cao, H. Huang, N. Tian, Y. Zhang, Y. Guo and T. Zhang, Novel Y doped Bi2WO6 photocatalyst: hydrothermal fabrication, characterization and enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for rhodamine b degradation and photocurrent generation, Mater. Charact., 101 (2015) 166–172.
2. J. Guo, L. Shi, J. Zhao, Y. Wang, K. Tang, W. Zhang, C. Xie and X. Yuan, Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of Bi2MoO6 nanoplates with heterogeneous [email protected] core-shell structure, Appl. Catal. B: Environ., 224 (2018) 692–704.
3. W. Wu, S. Liang, X. Wang, J. Bi, P. Liu and L. Wu, Synthesis, structures and photocatalytic activities of microcrystalline ABi2Nb2O9 (A= Sr, Ba) powders, J Solid State Chem., 184 (2001) 81-88.
4. Z. Chen, H. Jiang, W. Jin, and C. Shi, Enhanced photocatalytic performance over Bi4Ti3O12 nanosheets with controllable size and exposed {001} facets for rhodamine b degradation, Appl. Catal. B: Environ., 180 (2016) 698–706.
5. S. Tu, Y. Zhang, A. H. Reshak, S. Auluck, L. Ye, X. Han, T. Ma and H. Huang, (2018). Ferroelectric polarization promoted bulk charge separation for highly efficient CO2 photoreduction of SrBi4Ti4O15. Nano Energy, 56 (2018) 840–850.
6. A.A. Alemi, R. Kashfi and B. Shabani, Preparation and characterization of novel Ln (Gd3+, Ho3+ and Yb3+)-doped Bi2MoO6 with aurivillius layered structures and photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation, J Mol Catal A Chem., 392 (2014) 290–298.
7. R.Z. Hou and X.M. Chen, La3+ substitution in four-layers Aurivillius phase SrBi4Ti4O15, Solid State Commun., 130 (2004) 469–472.
8. D. Do, S.S. Kim and J.W. Kim, Effects of vanadium doping on structure and electrical properties of SrBi4Ti4O15 thin films, Appl. Surf. Sci., 255 (2009) 4531–4535.
9. G.N. Shao, S.M. Imran, S.J. Jeon, S.J. Kang, S.M. Haider and H.T. Kim, Sol–gel synthesis of vanadium doped titania: effect of the synthetic routes and investigation of their photocatalytic properties in the presence of natural sunlight, Appl. Surf. Sci., 351 (2015) 1213-1223.
10. T. Wang and T. Xu, Effects of vanadium doping on microstructures and optical properties of TiO2, Ceram. Int., 43 (2016) 1558–1564.
11. X. Ma, L. Xue, S. Yin, M. Yang and Y. Yan, Preparation of V-doped TiO2 photocatalysts by the solution combustion method and their visible light photocatalysis activities, J. Wuhan Univ. Technol. Mater. Sci. Ed., 29 (2014) 863–868.
12. R. Handayani, W. Safitri, N Aini, A. Hardian and A. Prasetyo, Synthesis and characterization of vanadium doped Bi4Ti3O12 as photocatalyst material, IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 578 (2019) 1, 1-5.
13. T. Kamegawa, J. Sonoda, K. Sugimura, K. Mori and H. Yamashita, Degradation of isobutanol diluted in water visible light sensitive vanadium doped TiO2 photocatalyst, J. Alloys Compd., 486 (2009) 685-688.
14. H. Bantawal, S.U Shenoy and K.D. Bhat, Vanadium-doped SrTiO3 nanocubes: insight into role of vanadium in improving the photocatalytic activity, Appl. Surf. Sci., 513 (2020) 145858.
15. D. Gu, Y. Qin, Y. Wen, T. Li, L. Qin and H.J. Seo, Electronic structure and optical properties of V-Doped Bi4Ti3O12 nanoparticles, J. Alloys Compd., 695 (2017) 2224-2231.
16. J. Zhu, X.Y. Mao and X.B. Chen, Properties of vanadium-doped SrBi4Ti4O15 ferroelectric ceramics, Solid State Commun., 130 (2004) 363–366.
17. A.S. Rini, A. Nabilla and Y. Rati, Microwave-assisted biosynthesis and characterization of ZnO film for photocatalytic application in methylene blue degradation, Commun. Sci. Technol., 6(2) (2021) 69–73.
18. K. Wu, H.L. Tan, C. Zhang, Z. Teng, Z. Liu, Y.H. Ng, Q. Zhang and C. Su, Recent advances in two-dimensional ultrathin Bi-based photocatalysts, Prog. Mater. Sci., (2022) 101047.
19. A.P. Jakhade, M.V. Biware and R.C. Chikate, Two-dimensional Bi2WO6 nanosheets as a robust catalyst toward photocyclization, ACS Omega, 2 (2017) 7219–7229.
20. W. Jiang, T. Chen, X. Yang, L. Ruan, Y. Liu, X. Meng, G. Xu and G. Han, Surfactant free synthesis of single crystalline Bi4Ti3O12 nanosheets with excellent visible light photocatalytic activity, Catal. Surv. Asia, 23 (2019) 322-331.
21. T. Cheng, X. Sun, T. Xian, Z. Yi, R. Li, X. Wang and H. Yang, Tert-Butylamine/Oleic Acid-assisted morphology tailoring of hierarchical Bi4Ti3O12 architectures and their application for photodegradation of simulated dye wastewater. Opt. Mater., 112 (2021) 110781.
22. N. Sreeram, V. Aruna, R. Koutavarapu, D.Y. Lee and J. Shim, Visible-light-driven indium vanadium oxide nanosheets supported bismuth tungsten oxide nanoflakes heterostructure as an efficient photocatalyst for the tetracycline degradation, Chemosphere, 229 (2022) 134477.
23. X. Wen, C. He, B. Wu, X. Huang, Z. Huang, Z. Yin, Y. Liu, M. Fang, X. Wu and X. Min, Molten salt synthesis, growth mechanism, and photoluminescence of rod chlorapatite microcrystallites. CrystEngComm., 21 (2019) 11 1809–1817.
24. T. Kimura, Molten salt synthesis of ceramic powders. Advances in Ceramics-Synthesis and Characterization, Processing and Specific Applications. London, UK. Intechopen, 2011.
25. Y. Chang, J. Wu, B. Yang, S. Zhang, T. Lv and W. Cao, Synthesis and properties of high aspect ratio SrBi4Ti4O15 microplatelets. Mater. Lett., 129 (2014) 4 12–15.
26. S.K Gupta and Y. Mao (2021). Recent developments on molten salt synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials: A Review. J. Phys. Chem. A, 125 (2021) 12 6508-6533.
27. D.R. Novianti, F. Haikal, U.A. Rouf, A. Hardian and A. Prasetyo, Synthesis and characterization of Fe-doped CaTiO3 polyhedra prepared by molten NaCl salt, Indones. J. Sci. Technol., 7 (2022) 1 17-21.
28. W. Zhao, Z. Jia, E. Lei, L. Wang, Z. Li and Y. Dai, Photocatalytic degradation efficacy of Bi4Ti3O12 micro-scale platelets over methylene blue under visible light, J. Phys. Chem. Solids., 74 (2013) 11 1604-1607.
29. H. He, J. Yin, Y. Li, Y. Zhang, H. Qiu, J. Xu, T. Xu and C. Wang, Size controllable synthesis of single-crystal ferroelectric Bi4Ti3O12 nanosheet dominated with {001} facets toward enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activities. Appl. Catal. B., 156-157 (2014) 35-43.
30. S.N. Himmah, P. Sari and A. Prasetyo, Characterization of vanadium-doped BaBi4Ti4O15 prepared by molten KCl salt method, JKPK., 7 (2022) 1 1-11.
31. P. Makula, M. Pacia and W. Macyk. How to correctly determine the band gap energy of modified semiconductor photocatalysts based on UV–Vis spectra, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 9 (2018) 23 6814-6817.
32. B.H. Toby, R factors in Rietveld analysis: How good is good enough?, Powder Diffr., 21 (2006) 1 68-70.
33. L. Alexander and H.P. Klug, Determination of crystallite size with the X-Ray spectrometer, J. Appl. Phys., 21 (1950) 137.
34. E.M. Benali, A. Benali, M. Bejar, E. Dhahri, M.P.F. Graca, M.A. Valente and B.F.O. Costa, Effect of synthesis route on structural, morphological, Raman, dielectric, and electric properties of La0.8Ba0.1Bi0.1FeO3, J Mater Sci: Mater Electron, 31 (2020) 3197-3214.
35. R.D. Shannon, Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides, Acta Crystallogr. A, A32 (1976) 751-767.
36. E.V. Ramana, N.V. Prasad, D.M. Tobaldi, J. Zavasnik, M.K. Singh, M. J. Hortiguela, M.P. Seabra, G. Prasad and M.A. Valente, Effect of samarium and vanadium co-doping on structure, ferroelectric and photocatalytic properties of bismuth titanate, RSC Adv., 7 (2017) 9680-9692.
37. D.P. Dutta and A.K. Tyagi, Facile sonochemical synthesis of Ag modified Bi4Ti3O12 nanoparticles with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light, Mater. Res. Bull., 74 (2016) 397-407.
38. D. Marrocchelli, S.R. Bishop, H.L. Tuller and B. Yildiz, Understanding chemical expansion in non-stoichiometric oxides: ceria and zirconia case studies, Adv. Funct. Mater., 22 (2012) 1958-1965.
39. H. Hao, H. Liu, Y. Liu, M. Cao and S. Ouyang, lead free SrBi4Ti4O15 and Bi4Ti3O12 material fabrication using the microwave-assisted molten salt synthesis method, J Am. Ceram. Soc. 90 (2007) 5 1659-1662.
40. Z. Zhao, X. Li, H. Ji and M. Deng, (2014). Formation mechanism of plate-like Bi4Ti3O12 particles in molten salt fluxes, Integr. Ferroelectr. 154 (2014) 1 154-158.
41. S.D. Marella, N. Aini, A. Hardian, V. Suendo and A. Prasetyo, (2021). The effect of synthesis temperature on the plate-like particle of Bi4Ti3O12 obtained by molten NaCl salt method, J. Pure Appl. Chem., 10 (2021) 1 64-71.
42. J. Wang, X. Ye, X. Yaer, Y. Wu and B. Zhang, Key to enhance thermoelectric performance by controlling crystal size of strontium titanate, Mod. Phys. Lett. B., 29 (2015) 1550167
43. R. Ebrahimi, A. Malei, R. Rezaee, H. Daraei, M. Safari, G. McKay, S. Lee and A. Jafari, Synthesis and application of Fe-doped TiO2 nanoparticles for photodegradation of 2,4-D from aqueous solution, Arab. J. Sci. Eng,. 46 (2020) 6409-6422.
44. A.A. Isari, A. Payan, M. Fattahi, S. Jorfi and B. Kakavandi, Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine b and real textile wastewater using Fe-doped TiO2 anchored on reduced graphene oxide (Fe-TiO2/rGO): characterization and feasibility, mechanism and pathway studies, Appl. Surf. Sci,. 462 (2018) 549-564.
45. A. Kubacka, A. Fuerte, A. Matinez-Arias and M. Fernandez-Garcia, Nanosized Ti-V mixed oxides: effect of doping level in the photo-catalytic degradation of toluene using sunlight-type excitation, Appl. Catal. B: Environ., 74 (2007) 1-2 26-33.
46. M. Khan, Y. Song, N. Chen and W. Cao, Effect of V doping concentration on the electronic structure, optical and photocatalytic properties of nano-sized V-doped anatase TiO2, Mater. Chem. Phys., 142 (2013) 1 148-153.